Suggested references for self-education

Very few universities have courses or workshops on ordination techniques. Therefore, most practitioners have to learn the techniques on their own. The following books are recommended for self-education. They are presented in order of increasing complexity, and mathematical background expected. Therefore, I recommend reading them in the following order! It is not necessary to go beyond the first few stages in order to start applying the methods. After reading the first few, you will be able to just skim the remaining, to find out what is unique in each.  Although Gauch 1982 may seem a bit out of date, I still recommend it as an introduction to gradient analysis.  It, more than any other work, ties in ecological theory with gradient analysis in an approachable way.

The following two books are indispensible references.  The first one has a thorough coverage of multivariate methods, time-series, and spatial analysis, as applied in ecology.  The second is not merely a manual, as the title might imply.  It gives the theoretical foundations behind the eigenanalysis-based ordination methods.

The following reference is very good for Bray-Curtis (or Polar) Ordination, but also has a good, accessible introduction to other methods. As you might expect from the title, there is strong advocacy for one particular method.

* indicates that Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) is discussed. 

This page was created and is maintained by Michael Palmer.
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